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Sometimes the vein will actually pass tangent to the notch, but often it will pass by at a small distance, and when that happens a spur vein (occasionally a pair of such spur veins) branches off and joins the leaf margin at the deepest point of the notch. In 2004, Hillig and Mahlberg published a chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in their Cannabis germplasm collection. The scientific debate regarding taxonomy has had little effect on the terminology in widespread use among cultivators and users of drug-type Cannabis.
This venation pattern varies slightly among varieties, but in general it enables one to tell Cannabis leaves from superficially similar leaves without difficulty and without special equipment. The botanists engaged in heated debate (outside of court), and both camps impugned the other's integrity. They used gas chromatography to determine cannabinoid content and to infer allele frequencies of the gene that controls CBD and THC production within the studied populations, and concluded that the patterns of cannabinoid variation support recognition of C. Cannabis aficionados recognize three distinct types based on such factors as morphology, native range, aroma, and subjective psychoactive characteristics.
Lamarck based his description of the newly named species on plant specimens collected in India. In the early 20th century, the single-species concept was still widely accepted, except in the Soviet Union where Cannabis continued to be the subject of active taxonomic study. Janichevsky concluded that ruderal Cannabis in central Russia is either a variety of C. Cannabis for industrial uses is valuable in tens of thousands of commercial products, especially as fibre ranging from paper, cordage, construction material and textiles in general, to clothing. It also is a useful source of foodstuffs (hemp milk, hemp seed, hemp oil) and biofuels.
Industrial hemp products are made from cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fiber.
An international team demonstrated that this material contained tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis.
The cannabis was presumably employed by this culture as a medicinal or psychoactive agent, or an aid to divination.
Its use as a mind-altering drug has been documented by archaeological finds in prehistoric societies in Eurasia and Africa. 440 BCE) Histories records, "The Scythians, as I said, take some of this hemp-seed [presumably, flowers], and, creeping under the felt coverings, throw it upon the red-hot stones; immediately it smokes, and gives out such a vapour as no Grecian vapour-bath can exceed; the Scyths, delighted, shout for joy." Classical Greeks and Romans were using cannabis, while in the Middle East, use spread throughout the Islamic empire to North Africa. Various forms of the drug cannabis exist, including extracts such as hashish and hash oil Medical cannabis (or medical marijuana) refers to the use of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids, to treat disease or improve symptoms.
In 1545, cannabis spread to the western hemisphere where Spaniards imported it to Chile for its use as fiber. Cannabis is used to reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, to improve appetite in people with HIV/AIDS, and to treat chronic pain and muscle spasms.Tiny samples of Cannabis plants also can be identified with precision by microscopic examination of leaf cells and similar features, but that requires special expertise and equipment. and American taxonomist Arthur Cronquist published a taxonomic revision that recognizes a single species of Cannabis with two subspecies: C. Sativa is the most widespread variety, which is usually tall, laxly branched, and found in warm lowland regions.